ROBERT II The Pious
ROBERT II, The Pious. (French: Robert II le Pieux)(Sanctus). King of France. (Roi de France).
Born 27 March 972 in Orléans, France; son of HUGH CAPET, King of France and Adelaide of Acquitaine (de Poitou).. He married (1) Susanne (Rosala), Princess of Italy. He married (2) Bertha of Burgundy. He married (3) Constance TAILLEFER, daughter of William TAILLEFER, Count of Tolouse.
On 30 December 987, Robert's father had the nobles crown him as successor at Orléans, thereby confirming the house of Capet as rulers of France.
Robert, despite marital problems that saw him temporarily excommunicated by Pope Gregory V, was a very devout Roman Catholic, hence the name Robert the Pious. He was very musically inclined and was a composer, a chorister, and a poet, making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. Part of Robert's piety at the time was because he did not tolerate heretics and harshly punished them.
The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any of the feudal lands as they became vacant which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as the Duke of Burgundy.
The pious King Robert II made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons. Robert's sons, Henry I of France and Robert I, Duke of Burgundy, also turned against their father, in a civil war for power and property. King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris.
He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun, France. He was interred with his third wife, Constance of Arles (973-July 25, 1032) in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by son Henry.
Robert's descendants would go on to rule not only France, but England (through his granddaughter Matilda of Flanders' marriage to William the Conqueror), Portugal, Castile, and Leon.
Susanne (Susanna-S3) (Rosala-S2)(Rozala-S3), Princess of Italy.
Born about 945, of Ivrea. She was the widow of Count Arnulf II of Flanders, by whom she had issue. She married Robert about 989. She was much older than Robert, and the marriage was arranged by his father. Robert divorced her a year later. She died on 26 January 1003.
Bertha, Princess of Burgundy.
Born in 952. She was the widow of Count Theobald II of Blois. She married Robert about 996. Because she was his cousin, Pope Gregory V would not sanction the marriage and Robert was excommunicated. However, after long negotiations with the new Pope Silvester II the marriage was annulled. She died in 1035.
CHILDREN of ROBERT II The Pious and Bertha:
(child). Born and died in 999.
Constance DE TOULOUSE (Taillefer). Constance of Arles. Constance of Provence.
Born about 973-974 at Toulouse, France; daughter of William TAILLEFER III. She married Robert II, King of France (in 998-S1) (1001-S2) in France. She was an intriguing and ambitious woman who made life miserable for her husbadn by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father. She died on 25 Jul (1032-S1)(1034-S2) at Melun, France; and was buried at St. Denis Abbey, St Denis, Seine, France
CHILDREN of ROBERT II The Pious and Constance:
- HENRY I, King of France and Anna of Kiev. Born 4 May 1008. He died on 4 August/October 1060.
- Adele. (Adela). Countess of Contenance, later Countess of Flanders. Born about (1003-S3)(about 1009-S2). She married (1) Duke Richard III of Normandy; and (2) Count Baldwin V of Flanders. She is better known as the mother of Matilda of Flanders, wife of William the Conqueror. (not listed in Stoyan ). She died on 5 June 1063.
- Advisa, Countess of Auxerre. Born about 1003. She married Count Renaud I of Nevers. Their children inherited the counties of Nevers and Auxerre. She died after 1063.
- Hugh Magnus, or Hugh "The Great" co-king. Born in 1007. Hugh is said to have been married (or betrothed) before his death to Halwisa (Hawisa?) or Elisabeth d'Avoye, dau of one Henri l'Oiseteur, who married 2ndly Hamon, Count of Corbeil. Elisabeth's second husband Hamon  was younger brother of William, Count of Corbeil (possibly also known as William, Count of Arques), and as such he was a descendant of Richard I "The Fearless" or "Sans-Peur", Duke of Normany, great-grandfather William II, Duke of Normandy, later styled "The Conqueror". One of Hamon and Elisabeth's sons was apparently Robert Fitzhamon (b ca. 1045-1055 d. 1107) who was an important figure in Anglo-Norman history from 1087 to 1106. However, these marriages and the exact connections of Hamon to the Dukes of Normandy have not been proven. He died on 17 September 1025.
- ROBERT I, Duke of Burgundy (Bourgogne). Born about 1011. Ancestor of the first Capetian house of Burgundy. He died on 21 March 1076.
- Odo (Eudes). Born in 1013. He died in 1056, after the failed invasion of Normandy.
- Adelaide (Adelheid) of France. Born about 1014. She died on 8 January 1079.
- Beatrice (Beatrix) of France. She died about 1072.
- Constance (1014-unknown), married Manasses de Dammartin (not listed in Stoyan )
CHILDREN of ROBERT II The Pious and Constance:
- Rudolf of Bourges, illegitimate.
- [S1]. http://www.isi.edu/people/bcn/ft/d0000/g0000025.html#I161
- [S2]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. QUOTES as sources: a) Stoyan.
- [S3]. Stoyan. http://www8.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/cgi-bin/stoyan/l3/LANG=engl/F=Robert@II/N=de@France